Is a type of additive manufacturing, which uses “inks,” or “bio-inks” for the printing of layer-by-layer living structures that imitate the behavior of natural living systems, cells, and other biocompatible materials. The functions of a human body external to the body can be studied (in vitro) in 3D, by bio-printed structures such as an organ-on-a-chip. The geometry of a 3D bio-printed structure is closer to a natural biological system and more biologically important than an in-vitro 2D sample.
In the bioprinting process, first of all, a regular CT or MRI scan is used to obtain the exact tissue measurements. 3D imaging should ensure the tissue is fit correctly, and the surgeon requires little to no modification.
Then using AutoCAD software, a blueprint is developed and at this point, there could be fine changes to prevent the transfer of defects. In the next step bio, ink preparation takes place bio-ink is a living cell mixture and a compatible base such as collagen, jelly, hyaluronate, silk, alginate, or nitrocellulose. Lastly, cells are provided with scaffolding and nutrients for survival. To print 3D, we deposit layer by layer the bio inclusive layer, in which each layer is 0.5 mm or smaller, the size of tissue to be printed depends heavily on the distribution of smaller and larger deposits. In the last step deposition takes place, the layer begins as a viscous liquid and solidifies to maintain its form. This happens as more layers are continuously deposited and the process of blending and solidification is known as crosslinking and may be aided by UV light, specific chemicals, or heat.
Applications of bio-printing
- The high increase in organ failure among artificial organs is one of the largest drivers of technology. The availability of 3D print organs is critical for the care of patients, their families, and their health systems to address organ-related issues faster and quicker.
- The creation of pharmaceutical test tissues is a more economic and ethical choice. 3D bioprinting also helps to recognize the side effects of medications and enables the administration of prescribed medicines to humans with approved appropriate doses.
- The technology also benefits from cosmetic intervention, particularly plastic surgery and skin grafting. Bio printed skin tissue may be sold in this specific use. Some 3D printed tissues are already bio-printed for therapeutic investigation
- Bone tissue regeneration as well as prosthetics and dental applications.
- In the production of foodstuff involving meat and vegetables.