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Relationship of depression and genetic spectrum

by Fahid Safdar
Relationship of depression and genetic spectrum

Depression and Genetic Spectrum

Everyone experiences sadness and unhappiness at some point in their lives. Clinical Depression, however, is more extreme and of longer duration than usual sadness or grief, which interferes with a person’s ability to connect in daily activities. The symptoms of depression can include: loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, major changes in appetite, sleep problems (sleeping too much or too little), fatigue, a feeling of worthlessness or hopelessness, problems with

concentration and making decisions, and thoughts of suicide.

According to WHO

According to WHO depression is a common mental disorder affecting more than 264 million people around the globe, it is characterized by persistent sadness and a lack of interest or pleasure in rewarding or enjoyable activities. Depression is itself killing one’s emotions, feelings, and many other interests. it attacks not only adults or the working personnel but it is also an attack on the children, there is no age limit.

There are wounds that never show on the body that are deeper and more hurtful than anything that bleeds. (Laurell K.Hamilton) In a new study in the journal Biological Psychiatry, published by Elsevier, researchers highlight the relationship between depression and genetic spectrum. First author Jonathan Coleman, Ph.D. who is a statistical geneticist said “The clearest findings are a genetic distinction between type 1 bipolar and type 2 bipolar, and the greater similarity of type 2 bipolar to major depressive disorder.” Both bipolar disorders are known as a manic depressive disorder.

What is manic depressive behavior??

Mania is a behavioral condition that is related to behavioral activation, short-tempered mood, no need for sleep, spontaneous behavior, impaired judgment, and false beliefs. Bipolar type 1 is related to mania and depression while Bipolar type 2 is related to depression with fewer symptoms and is also known as hypomania. The need to research this study comes when researchers analyzed large datasets. By following the statistical procedure researchers compared the three large datasets of people with depression bipolar disorder with their genome & in this way, they evaluate shared and distinct molecular genetics associations.

There are noteworthy racial and cultural differences in the findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The conclusion of this study relates only to people of European ancestry and the conclusion might be different in other groups. The authors also account that the genetic risk for these disorders was extrapolative of other traits as well. For example, the genetic risk for bipolar disorder was correlated with more educational realization, while the genetic risk for the major depressive disorder was associated with less education.

John Krystal, MD, editor of Biological Psychiatry

said, we have long recognized that mood disorders are highly diverse and the limitations between types of mood disorders are often difficult to define clinically. This new study suggests that there are aspects of genetic risk, and presumably brain function, that link forms of mood disorders, but there are also distinctions that may drop light on subtypes of depression that may have important implications for treatment.

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