“A vaccine is used to prevent humans from being exposed to a virus in this case, SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID-1. A vaccine teaches the immune system to recognize the virus and attacks it. In May the National institute of health announced that large-scale testing could begin in July with a vaccine potentially available by January 2021. Worldwide medical experts are working on potential therapies and vaccines for COVID-19”.
The scientists are hoping that a viable vaccine will be available by the end of 2020 with more than 160 possible COVID-19 vaccines are under investigation. A variety of different methods are being explored and there is hope for cooperation between small vaccine companies and large medicines companies that can generate them massively. The U.S officials announced that they will conduct phase III clinical trial of vaccine from three companies: Moderna Inc., AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson. The vaccines from Moderna and AstraZeneca are already being tested in individuals, while Johnson & Johnson announced that it will start testing in July.
In March, in Seattle, Washington, the company started a Phase I clinical trial to test its mRNA vaccine. It is a novel RNA based vaccine that uses some portion of the hereditary code of the spike protein implanted in exceptional lipid-based nanoparticles for infusion into the body. It has been created by the biotech firm Moderna Therapeutics. Later in May the company announced that vaccine has started producing antibodies in all 45 participants in phase I clinical trial. The FDA approved the company to begin a Phase II vaccine test. A Phase III clinical trial is planned by the company and will be started in July.
Scientists from the University of Oxford in collaboration with AstraZeneca have developed the COVID-19 vaccine made of a weakened version of adenovirus. The genetically engineered adenovirus is therefore not capable of reproducing itself. The vaccine is combined with spike protein genes which cause vaccinations and can destroy the SARS-CoV-2 virus by the immune system. In April its first clinical trial started with 500 participants, this trial result is 80% effective and oxford official announces to begin late-stage clinical trial this year.
University of Queensland
The researchers from the University of Queensland in Australia have designed vaccines by growing viral proteins in cell culture. The University of Queensland in Australia announced promising results from its Covid-19 vaccine candidate’s early preclinical trials.
Sinovac Biotech, one of the leading names in developing the vaccine in China, has suggested that its coronavirus shot in human trials is capable of creating an immune reaction. The Vaccine designed by Sinovac is CoronaVac. The vaccine has not produced any serious side effects in more than 90 percent of the people that it was given to. In two weeks of administration, the vaccine developed neutralizing antibodies successfully. This vaccine has successfully passed the phase I and II clinical trial.